Acute respiratory tract infection
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) represent the main cause of acute diseases worldwide and remain the number one cause of deaths in newborns and young children (nearly 2 million deaths/year). Respiratory pathogens represent a major public health issue and have a large socio-economic impact. ARTI caused by several viruses including influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses are associated, in the United States, with 20 million days of absenteeism from work and 22 million days of absenteeism from school and, globally, represent a leading cause of consultations, hospitalizations and deaths in both developed and developing countries. As a main example, each year, worldwide, the seasonal Influenza causes 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. In the United States, influenza infections alone caused 31.4 million of medical visits and 200,000 hospitalizations. The medical expenses were estimated $10.4 billion and the Influenza infections leaded to $16.3 billion of lost earnings in 2013.
New efficient antiviral strategies are necessary
Up to now, very few efficient vaccines or antiviral treatments have been reported in the medical literature to fight against these respiratory pathogens, with the exception of those available against influenza viruses. However, resistance of influenza viral strains to current antiviral agents, such as Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) constitutes a growing medical problem. New efficient antiviral strategies, less prone to the emergence of resistance, are necessary.
Market and Revenue Opportunities
Since the 5 past years, the global drug market is mutating. First, the total cost of bringing a new drug to the market is around $ 2 billion, one de novo drug development generally takes around 12 years to completion and only 10% of drugs catch on phase II to market. Secondly, the global patent term between 2008 and 2018 costs around $ 206 billion in lost sales for the pharmaceutical industry to the generic drug market. Thirdly, the “one-target-one-drug” paradigm is now shifting to the “multiple-targets-one-drug” paradigm.
In an effort to treat these various ARTIs, consumers spend $2-3 billion each year. The therapeutics market for Influenza is estimated to grow from nearly $1 billion in 2014 to nearly $1.3 billion in 2018, with an expected annual growth rate of 8% for the period of 2014-2018. The therapeutics market for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RVS; bronchiolitis) was nearly $0.65 billion in 2014 and is estimated around $2.3 billion in 2024, with an estimated annual growth rate of 29.9% for the period of 2014-2024.